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- How to Gain Weight (the Healthy Way!)
- Weight loss: Obesity, diets, and calories
But untangling how much is genetic and how much is learned through family eating habits is difficult. What is clear is that some people appear to be prone to accumulating extra fat while others seem to be protected against it. In a seminal series of experiments published in the s, the Canadian researchers Claude Bouchard and Angelo Tremblay studied 31 pairs of male twins ranging in age from 17 to 29, who were sometimes overfed and sometimes put on diets.
None of the twin pairs were at risk for obesity based on their body mass or their family history. In one study, 12 sets of the twins were put under hour supervision in a college dormitory. Six days a week they ate 1, extra calories a day, and one day they were allowed to eat normally. They could read, play video games, play cards and watch television, but exercise was limited to one minute daily walk.
Over the course of the day study, the twins consumed 84, extra calories beyond their basic needs. That experimental binge should have translated into a weight gain of roughly 24 pounds based on 3, calories to a pound. But some gained less than 10 pounds, while others gained as much as 29 pounds. The amount of weight gained and how the fat was distributed around the body closely matched among brothers, but varied considerably among the different sets of twins.
Some brothers gained three times as much fat around their abdomens as others, for instance. When the researchers conducted similar exercise studies with the twins, they saw the patterns in reverse, with some twin sets losing more pounds than others on the same exercise regimen. But while there is widespread agreement that at least some risk for obesity is inherited, identifying a specific genetic cause has been a challenge.
In October , the journal Nature Genetics reported that researchers have so far confirmed 32 distinct genetic variations associated with obesity or body-mass index. One of the most common of these variations was identified in April by a British team studying the genetics of Type 2 diabetes. According to Timothy Frayling at the Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science at the University of Exeter, people who carried a variant known as FTO faced a much higher risk of obesity — 30 percent higher if they had one copy of the variant; 60 percent if they had two.
This FTO variant is surprisingly common; about 65 percent of people of European or African descent and an estimated 27 to 44 percent of Asians are believed to carry at least one copy of it. In one study led by Colin Palmer of the University of Dundee in Scotland, Scottish schoolchildren were given snacks of orange drinks and muffins and then allowed to graze on a buffet of grapes, celery, potato chips and chocolate buttons. All the food was carefully monitored so the researchers knew exactly what was consumed.
Although all the children ate about the same amount of food, as weighed in grams, children with the FTO variant were more likely to eat foods with higher fat and calorie content. Those who had the gene variant had about four pounds more body fat than noncarriers. I have been tempted to send in my own saliva sample for a DNA test to find out if my family carries a genetic predisposition for obesity.
A positive result, telling people they are genetically inclined to stay fat, might be self-fulfilling. While knowing my genetic risk might satisfy my curiosity, I also know that heredity, at best, would explain only part of why I became overweight. The National Weight Control Registry tracks 10, people who have lost weight and have kept it off.
Wing says that she agrees that physiological changes probably do occur that make permanent weight loss difficult, but she says the larger problem is environmental, and that people struggle to keep weight off because they are surrounded by food, inundated with food messages and constantly presented with opportunities to eat. There is no consistent pattern to how people in the registry lost weight — some did it on Weight Watchers, others with Jenny Craig, some by cutting carbs on the Atkins diet and a very small number lost weight through surgery.
But their eating and exercise habits appear to reflect what researchers find in the lab: to lose weight and keep it off, a person must eat fewer calories and exercise far more than a person who maintains the same weight naturally. Registry members exercise about an hour or more each day — the average weight-loser puts in the equivalent of a four-mile daily walk, seven days a week. They get on a scale every day in order to keep their weight within a narrow range. They eat breakfast regularly. Most watch less than half as much television as the overall population. They also appear to eat less than most people, with estimates ranging from 50 to fewer daily calories.
Kelly Brownell, director of the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University, says that while the 10, people tracked in the registry are a useful resource, they also represent a tiny percentage of the tens of millions of people who have tried unsuccessfully to lose weight. Years later they are paying attention to every calorie, spending an hour a day on exercise. Janice Bridge, a registry member who has successfully maintained a pound weight loss for about five years, is a perfect example.
Bridge, who is 66 and lives in Davis, Calif. At the time, her slow pace of weight loss prompted her doctor to accuse her of cheating. Friends told her she must not be paying attention to what she was eating. After peaking at pounds in , she tried again to lose weight.
She managed to drop 30 pounds, but then her weight loss stalled. In , at age 60, she joined a medically supervised weight-loss program with her husband, Adam, who weighed pounds. After nine months on an calorie diet, she slimmed down to pounds. Adam lost about pounds and now weighs about During the first years after her weight loss, Bridge tried to test the limits of how much she could eat.
She used exercise to justify eating more. The death of her mother in consumed her attention; she lost focus and slowly regained 30 pounds. She has decided to try to maintain this higher weight of , which is still pounds fewer than her heaviest weight.
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But my body would put on weight almost instantaneously if I ever let up. So she never lets up. Since October she has weighed herself every morning and recorded the result in a weight diary. She even carries a scale with her when she travels. In the past six years, she made only one exception to this routine: a two-week, no-weigh vacation in Hawaii. She also weighs everything in the kitchen. She knows that lettuce is about 5 calories a cup, while flour is about If she goes out to dinner, she conducts a Web search first to look at the menu and calculate calories to help her decide what to order.
She has also found that drinking copious amounts of water seems to help; she carries a ounce water bottle and fills it five times a day. She writes down everything she eats. At night, she transfers all the information to an electronic record. Adam also keeps track but prefers to keep his record with pencil and paper. I do a little bit of self-analysis every night. Here are a handful of the most persistent myths, debunked.
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The amount of energy we need is influenced by various factors, but the main ones are body mass, and what that mass is made up of. The only information you need is height, weight, sex and approximate daily activity levels.
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The bottom line is that most people use far more than 1, kcal a day, but even people with extremely low consumption still need significantly more energy than 1, kcal. Despite the common cliche of the fast food-guzzling, fat person, my favourite meal used to be a large mixed salad with salmon.
I ate it regularly, and in my mental calorie journal I would estimate it contained about kcal. When, after many years, I finally weighed out all the ingredients and calculated the actual number of calories they contained, I discovered that the dressing alone, with three tablespoons of olive oil, contained about kcal. The number of calories in the salad itself — tomato, cucumber, red pepper and lettuce — was within reason.
Mozzarella, though, added considerably more to the total, and the fact that the salmon was fried meant the final tally for this meal was 1, kcal — three times the amount I had estimated, and equivalent to the entire daily energy requirements for a small, slim woman. People can hugely misjudge their calorie intake, and overweight people have a strong tendency to underestimate the calorie content of their food.
These people claimed not to be able to lose weight, despite restricting their calorie intake to fewer than 1, kcal a day. This is the fat logic argument I encounter most often, and which I believed myself for many years. It is also the one I kick myself about the most, in retrospect.
Now, I argue the opposite whenever I can. This is not about whether your bum looks better as a size 36 or a size For someone who is naturally prone to lung problems, it might take five years. A comparison between healthy people of normal weight and healthy but obese subjects showed the latter group had a significantly higher risk of dying or developing cardiovascular disease. A study confirmed those results.
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It followed supposedly healthily obese subjects over 20 years and found that more than half became unhealthily obese during that time. Their risk of becoming ill was eight times higher than that of the healthy group with normal weight. Once at the top, I would sometimes pretend to cough or laugh to hide the fact that I was out of breath. Our society makes it very easy for us to delude ourselves. But I can imagine lots of people fall prey to a similar kind of distorted thinking as I did: I used to consider even relatively normal things to be great sporting achievements.
In , she ran a marathon and published an article about it with the title My Big Fat Finished Marathon. She wrote about how, after five months of training, she covered just over 40km in 12 hours and 20 minutes. It is an achievement for a severely obese person to walk the entire length of a marathon in one go.
How to Gain Weight (the Healthy Way!)
The marathon had officially ended hours before she crossed the finishing line — the stands removed, the organisers gone. The last participant to complete the race, several hours before Chastain, was a woman in her 70s.
Of course, everyone has to start from their own fitness level. When I weighed kg and was more or less unable to move for six months, average sporting achievements were as likely for me as breaking Olympic records.
In the first few months, I was proud of reaching various milestones, such as walking for half an hour without stopping, or spending 20 minutes on a bike for the first time in years. John Tickell M.
Weight loss: Obesity, diets, and calories
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